Uses of Carbon Fiber in the Automotive Industry: Where does it stand now? Fabric strengthening systems, also called fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) systems, consist of woven or stitched, unidirectional, carbon and glass fiber fabrics and impregnating resins. In general, the waste and used polymer composite materials are recycled using 1) material recycling (material reuse), 2) chemical recycling and 3) thermal recycling methods. Efforts to Reduce CO 2 Emissions. Carbon fiber composites stand out from the crowd for several reasons. The use plastics and fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) is increasing in automotives to reduce vehicle emissions and to achieve lightweight. When we talk about carbon fiber in car-making, it’s mostly carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) that’s being referred to. This review paves a way for better understanding to apply CFRP in automotive in the future. Design Explanation. The sporty interior, too, boasts interior trims made of this black gold. Nonetheless, they cannot be melted or reformed after moulding, making clarified. Carbon fibers are characterized by high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance and temperature tolerance, and low thermal expansion. To take advantage of the new design space, efficient computational approaches are quintessential. ENGINEERED PLASTICS CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYAMIDE-6: A YEARS OF EXCELLENT EXPERIENCE IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION PRODUCT NOMENCLATURE (OUR TRADEMARK): “UPA” COMPOSITION: polymeric matrix is PA-6, which is reinforced with low modulus carbon fiber (rayon based). Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2020 - 2025) The market is segmented by Resin (Thermosetting CFRPs and Thermoplastics CFRPs), End-user Industry (Aerospace, Automotive, Sports and Leisure, Building and Construction, Wind Power Industry, and Other End-user Industries), and Geography (Asia-Pacific, North America, Europe, South America and … The water contact angle was reduced from 85° to 59.5°, and the surface energy increased from 25.6 mJ/m² to 62.7 mJ/m². In fiber recovery method, both fibers and matrix materials are separated and recovered from the composite using chemical dissolution and precipitation technique. Carbon fibre reinforcement polymer (CFRP) is an extremely strong and light which contains carbon fiber. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs), or more commonly referred to as just carbon fiber is a rapidly expanding field in the engineering design world, being used everywhere from the structures of spacecraft down to high end sporting equipment such as cycling. The direction in which the fibers are laid is of crucial importance to stability: a carbon structure is only extremely rigid in the direction of the fibers. The lap-shear results showed that the shear strength of the epoxy joints was improved after laser treatment, and the failure type was changed from interface failure to substrate failure. In order to improve the surface state of CFRP and shear strength, this paper systematically studied the, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is governed by the following mechanisms: 1) debonding between the carbon fiber and polymer matrix, 2) fiber pull-out, and 3) delamination between the CFRP sheets. The research covers the current market size of the [Global Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Sales Market Report 2020] and its growth rates based on 5 year history data. International Journal of Material Forming. 358 – 366. It is warmed to room temperature around a day before the next step of processing. For visible carbon elements, there are around 3,000 filaments. Use of carbon fiber in flight is not new, it was even being used back in 1968 as fan assemblies. Polyacrylonitrile, petroleum pitch, etc. The spelling ‘ fiber’ is typically used outside the US. • Both of these huge aircraft are made from at least 50% Carbon fiber reinforced materials. . Vehicle lightweighting strategies must deliver sustainable returns to customers and society. The association of composite companies and research institutes Carbon Composites e.V. It became the major structural material that substitutes metals in many weight-critical components such as the new A350 and the B787 aircrafts, with composite content to exceed the 50%. recycling difficult. Market Definition: Global Carbon Fiber-reinforced Plastics (CFRP) Market. Lightweight construction with Fiber Components. The carbon fiber reinforced polymer is produced in Germany at the BMW production facilities in Leipzig and Landshut. materials Article On the Ablation Behavior of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics during Laser Surface Treatment Using Pulsed Lasers Jana Gebauer 1,* , Maximilian Burkhardt 1, Volker Franke 1 and Andrés Fabián Lasagni 1,2,* 1 Business Unit Microtechnology, Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany; email@example.com (M.B. Therefore, it is important to note that the total energy opportunities would scale with increasing production. Although the shape of structural parts or body assemblies is complex, it still can, be produced on one machine tool; hence translating into a subs, individual parts required to produce the vehi, (TECABS) in producing a composite BIW (Body in White) concept explained the number of parts, welded together . In automotive industry, the advantages of CFRP are reduction in weight, part integration and reduction, crashworthiness, durability and toughness as well as aesthetic appealing. The benefit of CFRP, in automotive is far more encouraging despite some of hindrance that may drag its potential. And on top of that – as shown, for example, by BMW M Performance Parts in visible carbon – there’s the fact that carbon offers a unique look. expected to be used for the matrix of high performance composites for Carbon fiber reinforced polymer is a strong and light weight material which has carbon … The spelling 'fibre' is common in British Commonwealth countries. Employees of the Innovation and Production Center at BMW’s Landshut plant in Germany carry a BMW i8 side frame made of CFRP. When we talk about carbon fiber in car-making, it’s mostly carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) that’s being referred to. has produced its fifth annual review of the global carbon fibre reinforced plastics market. In this study, continuous Adhesive bonding is generally considered to be the best technique for joining CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) light-weight structures. However, high drag distribution has overwhelmed the overall MAV performance. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) finds the greatest use in high end automobiles and supercars. Carbon-fiber-reinfoced-plastics find many uses in the sport goods, automotive and aerospace industry. Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), also known as fiber-reinforced polymers, are a category of composite plastics specifically using fiber materials to mechanically augment the elasticity and strength of the plastic. We clear up the jungle of jargon and explain what carbon fiber is, how it’s made and what advantages this high-tech material offers. Here are a few: Lightweight – carbon fiber is a low density material with a very high strength to weight ratio. DOE has made it clear that the use of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) injection molded car parts will revolutionize the auto industry, noting that the next generation of carbon-fiber composites could reduce passenger car weight by an astounding 50 percent and improve fuel efficiency by about 35 percent without compromising performance or safety. A common ex, as depicted in Figure 4 and engine carrier of Porsche Carrera, onto passenger cell to form main load carry, uses CFRP for occupant compartment in addition to its body structure that has approximately 20, mass of CFRP roof structure is 6 kg (50%) lighter than the conv, of gravity of the car is lower due to roo, The parts developed in this project contributed to reduce the weight of the car, Figure 4: The CFRP monoque structure used, Figure 6: The CFRP floor panel demonstrator part developed within the TECABS project , according to the corresponding direction. Adding Carbon Fiber to a Polymer Has Many Benefits. to be taken into account. The increased usage of composites in industry coupled with European Union restrictions on landfill disposal has resulted in an urgent need to develop resource efficient recycling technologies. almost 23000 tonnes by 2020 as depicted in Figure 2. The Top 16 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Composites Companies 2014: Leaders in Aerospace, Automotive, Energy, Construction & Sporting … Other advantages of carbon fiber include the ability to produce parts in almost any desired shape, its corrosion resistance and thus longevity, its low thermal expansion, and its long-lasting temperature resistance and fatigue strength. In competition with other materials as high‐strength steel or light metals, the market forecast for carbon fiber reinforced materials predicts a continuous growth around ten percent per year as it was achieved in the, Recent environmental pressures on the automotive industries to reduce carbon Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is a Polymer Matrix Composite material reinforced by carbon fibers.. The SEM, XPS and contact angle measuring instrument were used to analyze the changes of physicochemical properties of CFRP after different surface treatment. Aerospace and automotive are the major growth drivers in this market. When placed one on top of the other, they form stacks. • Recently Carbon fiber has become a major material in the manufacturing of commercial aircraft namely the new Airbus A350 and Boeing Dreamliner. aerospace, defence, and automotive thanks to superior specific stiffness, strength, and fatigue properties compared to most metals , Morphing is currently explored to provide a significant contribution on aerodynamic performances, flight control and stability especially on MAV platform. Tensile strength and flexural modulus are increased as is the heat deflection temperature or HDT. Amanda Jacob looks at some of the key developments, including the much-anticipated launch of the BMW i3 electric vehicle with its carbon fibre composite passenger compartment. Vehicle lightweighting strategies must deliver sustainable returns to customers and society. Richard Stewart reports that the benefits of composites are looking better than ever to car makers. A carbon fiber reinforced composite material, referred to as a carbon fiber composite material, refers to a fiber-reinforced composite material using carbon fiber as a main structural component. The automobile parts manufactured by the same do not need surface anticorrosion treatment, and have good weather resistance and aging resistance, and the service life is generally It is 2 to 3 times that of steel. The results showed that compared with alcohol cleaned and sandpaper sanding, 120 W laser treatment greatly improved the surface roughness of CFRP and formed micron-sized gaps. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are now being used in primary structures of airplanes, ships, and other vehicles and for applications that demand sustained high reliability during long-term operations. Key to Lightweight Construction. 75. pp. If you need help follow the link for support. Thus, the fibres can, be oriented along the path of the highest stress. ME514. To further demonstrate the use of the IGA framework, we performed optimization studies aimed at identifying the fiber paths minimizing stress concentration and Tsai-Wu failure index. CFRP materials are widely used in the manufacturing of top-end sports cars that require strong and light materials. An ultrasonic atomizer nozzle creates a water-aerosol and the small water droplets are sprayed onto the surface. It is a composite material, a type of a fiber-reinforced plastic, and it is used in industries and areas whose products demand high levels of strength-to-weight ratio. Grund, Dominik & Orlishausen, Manuel & Taha, Iman. In addition to rising fuel prices, government policy-makers are endeavouring to reduce the environmental impact of the automotive industry through directives and standards. Industry brochure “Automotive Solutions Functional” Automotive : 2/10/2019 : PDF : Industry brochure “Automotive Solutions Interior” Automotive : ... Light weight carbon fiber reinforced polymer roof made by Prepreg Compression Molding : JEC 2020 : 18/02/2020 : JPG : Preview of Mitsubishi Chemical’s building at K 2019 : K 2019 : Carbon is not used in every application due to its high cost. That’s why carbon fiber is used in aerospace engineering (➜ Read more: The Vantablack BMW), as well as in the construction of aircraft, boats and bicycles. Fans of the high-tech material get their money’s worth with BMW M Performance Parts. The model showed that curvilinear anisotropy can be effectively harnessed to reduce the stress concentration of up to 82 % compared to unidirectional composites without affecting the overall plate stiffness significantly. In the rest of the article we will use the term carbon fiber for simplicity’s sake. To assess its sustainability it is necessary to analyze this type of structural rehabilitation Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) are a fast-growing market that have the potential to influence many industries, including the automotive industry. (2019). Close-up of a stack, also known as a multiaxial layer. Graphene-reinforced carbon fiber may lead to affordable, stronger car materials ... "Currently most carbon fibers are produced from a polymer known as … The material is also used in body components for the BMW 7 Series, and was previously in the BMW i8 (➜ Read more: A future classic) and most notably in the BMW i3. Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite have been widely used in various applications especially used in the fabrication of aerospace structures and formula one body structures. Carbon fiber–reinforced polymer, carbon fiber–reinforced plastic or carbon fiber–reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer which contains carbon fibers. To sum up, there is no other material besides carbon fiber that can be used in such a weight-saving manner while at the same time offering these mechanical properties. ); This underlines the importance of CFRP in the lightweight material mix. On the other hand, thermoplastics are recyclable, so they are Reinforced Polymer), an analysis of the circumstances and the complexity of works, environmental impacts and over citizen, and issues related to quality control Polymer 3. In the next step for structural components, around 50,000 of these individual filaments are combined into fiber bundles known as rovings and rolled up. A contamination with corundum is not detectable by the BonNDTinspect system alone. operations from environmental, Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) is widely used in the aerospace and automotive industries due to their light weight and high strength. Body components made of aluminum, one of the most important light metals, can weigh 20 to 30% more than a corresponding element made of carbon, a rate that can increase to 50% in the case of steel. The carbon fibers themselves are extremely thin – they often measure just a tenth of the width of a human hair. Thus, productivity is increased . The BonNDTinspect system is an inline-capable NDT technique that is suitable for distinguishing surface states for adhesive bonding of CFRP. Furthermore, Table 1. The concept of our drone design is based on aerial photography and surveillance. In car-making, carbon fiber, like many a material before it, has found its way from racing to mass production. CFRP based solutions consist of CFRP plates and rods, plus structural epoxy resin based adhesives. At the front, a carbon fiber front attachment cuts through the air. Their use is expected to grow in a variety of fields. The manufacturing processes can’t yet meet stringent automotive requirements for repeatability and production speed. Various applications of composites in car manufacturing by top companies are also highlighted. Like a gigantic loom: Stack production by BMW in Wackersdorf, Germany. D. Brosius, “Carbon fiber: The automotive material of the twenty. But, it depen, In carbon fibre processing, the fibres can be, 10 minutes. 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2019.02.031. Through a documentary work in three Andalusian companies: Vorsevi, Labrum and Azul Construcción, about different investigations, studies and works of carbon fiber reinforcements CFRP (Carbon Fibre The matrix serves to connect the fibers and fill the spaces between them. Initial trial showed that the fiber recovery method was not able to fully separate the carbon fibers from the PEEK. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The forecast growth of carbon fibre used in the automotive market from 2010 -2020 (in tonnes) in the year of 2013 . Approximately 20 to 25 % of Boeing's and Airbus's wide-body airframes are carbon fibers. Components made of visible carbon, with the fabric structure that is so characteristic of this material, are visually fascinating. A carbon fiber spoiler rounds off the rear above the tailgate ... ... while the tailpipes are integrated into a carbon diffuser in a distinctive arrangement. CFRP has better and outstanding specific stiffness, specific strength and, properties compared to conventional metals. automotive industry for their light-weight attributes. Global carbon fibre demand by application in thousands tonnes in the year of 2013 . April 5th, 2019 . It was estimated at 7,000 metric tons (MT) of carbon fiber per year with a forecast to reach 11,000 MT in 2025 by Chris Red of Composites Forecasts and Consulting LLC (Mesa, Ariz., U.S.) at CW ’s Carbon Fiber 2017 conference. Carbon, Glass, Etc. Automotive manufacturers are working to reduce the use phase environmental impact of automobiles by introducing innovative vehicle designs. works of reinforced concrete structures are complex, expensive, and with a strong impact on the environment The polyurethane joint shear strength was not obviously improved and the combination failure of interface and cohesion was transformed into a pure interface failure after surface treatment. recent years . Thus, it is suitable to be used in application required load carrying structure. Polymer Testing. automobile applications due to its good mechanical properties. Recently polyoxamide (PX) resin, which has excellent CFRPs are particularly lightweight, possess high specific strength, and are highly corrosion-resistant. The thermoset plastics, Composite materials are already being used in the mass production of structural components in the automotive industry, particularly at the BMW Group. It was found by using an extension of the evaluation criteria that it is possible to detect contamination such as water-soluble release agent, CFRP dust and fingerprints. However, they also guarantee an extremely high level of quality and exclusivity. Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite reduces 50-70% weight of the component compared with conventional steel, resulted in the … Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are being widely used as lightweight and high strength material in aerospace and automotive industries, owing to their high specific modulus, high specific strength, and good corrosion and fatigue resistance. We verify this statement with destructive tests, including the single-lap shear test. Keywords: carbon fiber, thermoplastics, polyoxamide (PX), CFRTP, water Carbon composites revenues in US$ million in the automotive sector according to subsegment in the year of 2013 . Abstract Availability of additive manufacturing has influenced the scientific community to improve on production and versatility of the components created with several associated technologies. In one of the research carried out, assembly, to replace eight metal stampings and, component. Forward, march! Unlike glass fiber and PAN based carbon fiber, rayon based carbon fiber is much softer and … , FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer), are the most efficient, if we consider mechanical characteristics and lightness. Carbon fibers have several advantages including high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion. The aim is identify the research gaps in order to ensure the sustainability of the recovery infrastructure. In this study, we explored a new NURBS-based Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) framework for the simulation of curvilinear fiber composites and we compared it to standard Finite Element Analysis (FEA). highly hygroscopic properties of PA6, the influence of water absorption on the The reinforcing dispersed phase may be in form of either continuous or discontinuous carbon fibers of diameter about 0.0004” (10 mkm) commonly woven into a cloth.. Visible carbon parts are manufactured largely by hand, a time-consuming process. Carbon fiber is sometimes referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP is less common, as it clashes with glass- (fiber)-reinforced polymer). The Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite market report is basically an all-exhaustive analysis of this industry that includes information about the product scope, market size, sales and revenue, and vital market dynamics. The material performance of CFRP composites highly depends on the material manufacturing process and the inherent internal … CFRP, “baking”, carbon fibers and rovings – the subject of carbon fiber in car-making is full of technical terms. Table ES-1. Global Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Market is anticipated to witness an exponential growth in the forecast period. So it’s beautiful and valuable – and that makes carbon the black gold of high-tech materials. It was found that at a processing (recycling) rate of 10 kg/hr, the specific energy was significantly less than the embodied energy of virgin carbon fibre (2.03 MJ/kg compared to approximately 200 MJ/kg). At present, these CFRPs are created through composite manufacturing, a process that is currently evaluated after the fact. Carbon fiber–reinforced polymer, carbon fiber–reinforced plastic or carbon fiber–reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer which contains carbon fibers. This study aims to review the application of carbon fiber reinforced plastics in automotive industry. material defects, e.g. High tensile strength – one of the strongest of all commercial reinforcing fibers when it comes to tension, carbon fiber is very difficult to stretch or bend absorption. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers are composite materials which rely on the carbon fiber to provide the strength and stiffness while the polymer provides a cohesive matrix to protect and hold the fibers together and provides some toughness. Mark Holmes reviews the findings and outlook of the 2014 report, which continues to show carbon fibre use on the increase. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic for automobiles Thermoplastic CFRP Technology Promises to Speed Eco-car Adoption Moves toward tighter limits on vehicle CO 2 emissions, already being seen in Europe and elsewhere, are expected to spread to the rest of the world. Hongrui Chen. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic is sometimes also referred to as carbon fiber reinforced polymer. Carbon f, quantities of material for disposal, then recy, The application of CFRP in automotive industry was successfully reviewed. mechanical properties of Carbon Fiber/Polyamide 6 composites (CF/PA6) have Even though the material costs take a large share for parts made of CFRP, efficient production technologies are in demand. It does require a laborious process for its production, however. Automotive Pultrusion. tailored to the high or low stress areas and it is challenging to perform in a stamped sheet metal. See how carbon fiber-reinforced #plastic improves fuel efficiency in cars. Carbon fibers or carbon fibres (alternatively CF, graphite fiber or graphite fibre) are fibers about 5 to 10 micrometers (0.00020–0.00039 in) in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Rozaini Othman, All content in this area was uploaded by Rozaini Othman on Dec 13, 2019, Journal of Mechanical Manufacturing (J-MFac), Rozaini Othman, Noor Iswadi Ismail, Muhammad Arif Ab Hamid Pahmi, Mahamad, Hisyam Mahamad Basri, Hazim Sharudin, Abdul Rahman Hemdi, Automotive Research and Testing Center (AR, Universiti Teknologi MARA Penang Branch, M, industry. debonding. This study aims to review the application of carbon fiber reinforced plastics in automotive industry. mainstream carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites in automotive adoption before 2020 is unlikely and sometime after 2020, the potential volume of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites used in cars and trucks could dwarf all other applications, potentially reaching hundreds of billions of dollars. Less weight means less fuel or electricity used (➜ Read more: Electric vehicles - the concepts you should know), and thus a better carbon footprint. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer is a strong and light weight material which has carbon as their primary structural component. You can change your settings here at any time. MATERIALS: CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES . Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Drone Frame . The model was validated experimentally by comparing the theoretical energy demand to the measured energy demand of an industrial scale milling machine. In the rest of the article we will use the term carbon fiber for simplicity’s sake. Engineers are just as enthusiastic about carbon, as it guarantees high strength and rigidity with a low specific weight. However, in order to achieve this target, it, depends on the cost of CFRP component and, Generally, composite materials applied in automotive structures are limited to secondary exterior, Figure 2: The forecast growth of carbon fib, the application of trucks, motorsports as well as passeng, application of carbon fibres according to par, disadvantages of using CFRP in automotive, great reduction in vehicle weight which in turn increasing the fuel efficiency and fuel economy as, Figure 3: Carbon composites revenues in US$ m, approximately 500 units per year. These in turn are placed into molds and then “baked”. Lightweight composite materials have seen enormous growth in the past several years, especially in energy-critical applications such as automotive and wind energy. It should be noted that the “P” in the CFRP composite may represent not only “polymer” but also “plastic”. durability to a water environment, has been developed. The history of the BMW M logo and its colors, Electric vehicles - the concepts you should know. The thickness, on the other hand, can be locally. The relationship between specific energy of recycling and processing rate was also calculated, which highlighted that further energy savings can be achieved at higher processing rates. Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have been widely adopted as a material in the latest aircraft and automotive frames. Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites, in terms of revenue, dominated the overall market with over 65% share in 2016. In order to B. Lovins, “Ultralight, M. S. Flynn and B. M. Belzowski, “Barriers to adopting structural composites at the. 1.1 Overall Design. The advent of multi-material additive manufacturing and automated composite manufacturing has enabled the design of structures featuring complex curvilinear anisotropy. A CFRP BMW i3 body at the BMW plant in Leipzig, Germany is transported to the next production step. Shujing Wei. The ingredients for manufacturing are carbon fibers and a supporting structure made of thermosetting plastics known as the matrix. IHS analysts see the use of carbon fiber in automotive manufacturing to jump to 9,800 tons by the year 2030, up from 3,400 tons in 2013. “Composites on the road to the big time?”, M. M. Brylawski and A. CFRP also provides other beneficial mechanical properties such as low density, strength, and modulus of elasticity over other FRP composites. obtain good gasoline mileage, it is desired to reduce the weight of the car body. The rovings are then used to create flat textiles with different fiber orientations in order to achieve rigidity in all directions. The regions which have been highly affected by the COVID-19 have been analyzed and the estimated impact on the demand for the products in these regions have been analyzed in depth and … Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites (CFRP) are lightweight, strong materials used in the manufacturing of numerous products used in our daily life. DOE has made it clear that the use of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) injection molded car parts will revolutionize the auto industry, noting that the next generation of carbon-fiber composites could reduce passenger car weight by an astounding 50 percent and improve fuel efficiency by about 35 percent without compromising performance or safety. The investigated contamination with hydraulic oil allows only a clear differentiation between cleaned and contaminated. Fiber front attachment cuts through the use of carbon fiber for simplicity ’ s Landshut plant in Germany a. 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