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September 24-27, 2014 -International Rit Vimarsh Conference on Post-Modernity and Alternate Paradigms

Organized by:

RIT Foundation

Venue:

Hotel Crown Plaza, Okhla New Delhi

Date:

September 24-27, 2014

Purpose: To understand the course of post-modernity in the present scenario of the country and the implementation of alternate paradigms.

Target audience: College students, Educationists, General public

From 24th September to 27th September, Rit Foundation organized its first ever international 'Rit Vimarsh' Conference on Post-Modernity and Alternate Paradigms. It focussed on understanding the influence of post-modernity and the implementation of alternate paradigms in the national scenario. 

Post Modernity and changing paradigm - Abstracts

Indian Answers to the Post-Modern Question

Dr. Prashant Tripathi
VSSD College, CSJM University
India

Dr. Chitra Awasthi
President – Rit Foundation
India

Referring to the theory of indeterminacy may be an interesting point of departure for any discussion on post modernity and post modernism. The edifice of the classical scientific approach was based on determinacy that had roots in the theory of providence. Thus, scientific approach had, somehow, in philosophical sense, continuity with religious thought in Europe. Dual nature and a type of free will conceived in tiniest particles brought a type of catastrophe in the world view of western minds. Ground-level social, economic and political situations were already creating a helpful environment to get away from the dominant ideological system and typical modernist model of different systems of social life. Multiculturism itself appears to be a face saving device for for propagators of universalistic discourse. It seems that failure of a particular type of universalism is camouflaged by putting a case of muliculturism, rather than looking for some viable alternate. Shortcomings of the system were always noticed but historically, the beginning of the 21st century has brought forth tremendously fertile and decisive situations to think and act over it. Philosophy was already looking eastward to find answers of duality and non duality; now economic and strategic focus is also moving eastwards. Post-Cold War era has scattered the set patterns of power and dominance at the level of inter-national equations. In such situations, with Middle Asia overwhelmed by reactionism that emerged due to various historical factors and China trying to live with a legacy of an ideology and its revision borrowed from Europe, India is positioned very uniquely, not for its economic possibilities or strategic importance but for its philosophical roots and their proven applicability in a long continuum of history. The tendency of the modern world towards classification, systematization and rationalism has clipped the wings of liberty. Nonetheless, post-modernism has its own limitations. This new-fangled current of thought leads one towards a manner of intellectual terrorism and intellectual anarchy. To the post-modernist, any established belief-system is fit to be attacked. All modern western intellectual disciplines including sociology are riddled with materialistic prejudices. Opposition to scienticism takes the views of Nietzsche as its basis. Existentialists deny the possibility of any ultimate objective truth. This negates the bases of human thought, society and personality.

In this context, a balance can be struck after taking the cue from Indian philosophy. It is only the wisdom of the ancient Indian thinkers that can reconcile the seeming distinctions between polar opposites like mind-matter and consciousness-unconsciousness.

The commonly accepted western intellectual paradigms based upon categorization cannot give us new solutions for the problems faced by intellectuals across the disciplines. The continuity, unity and balance required for this purpose are to be found within Indian philosophy. Practitioners of Indian Philosophy do not find any difficulty perceiving ‘aham brahmasmi’(I am the absolute reality) and ‘sarv khalu idam brahm’(everything is that absolute reality) as the two dimensions of same truth. Thus .Universality and Particularity’ or ‘whole and unit’ are not taken here as contradictory. Same may be said about various schools of Indian Philosophy. The aforementioned new paradigms are essential not only for a proper appreciation of Indian social institutions for the simple reason that these have been instrumental in the evolution of Indian social institutions but also to resolve the philosophical and theoretical dilemma being faced by sociology in particular and by different aspects of human endeavour in general.

 

Prehistory Trumps Postmodernism: Reconstructing a Paradigm in the Wake of Deconstruction
Prof. Robert S. McElvaine
Millsaps College, Jackson, Mississippi
United States of America

“Try with a pitchfork to drive out human nature, she always returns.”– Horace

This paper presents a new metanarrative rooted in the very old: human evolution.

In the past half century, biology has come to be seen as the enemy of human decency. This development is simultaneously understandable and curious. What makes it understandable is the extraordinary misuse that had been made of purported biological differences to serve racist, sexist, and xenophobic objectives. What makes it curious is that intellectuals who rightly ridicule people who deny the findings of science in such areas as evolution and climate change have themselves become science deniers when it comes to evolution having had any effect on humans.

It was the belief that biology is what divides us that produced all the evils that led progressive thinkers to reject it. In fact, however, it is our biology that unites all humans. Retrieving the discarded concept of human nature is essential to the construction of a new paradigm. Human nature is something that is shared by people of all cultures—the basic predispositions that cultures shape in a wide variety of ways, but can never eliminate.

The new paradigm presented in this paper brings human nature back into the understanding of human history and sees sex and misperceptions of the differences between the sexes as the principal motive force in the human experience worldwide.

 

A third paradigm of knowledge

Dr. Shlomo Back & Mansur-Shachor Ruth
Kaye College of Education, Beer-Sheva
Israel

This paper discusses some ideas of the philosopher Michel Serres, and show that they can provide a basis for a new paradigm of knowledge.

The increasing power of humans over nature enhanced by technology has changed the ethical meaning of human action. The basic premise of traditional ethics was that man's life is played out between what is necessary, i.e., nature, and what is contingent, his own actions. However, today, good and evil can be inflicted indirectly, by changing the natural conditions that could cause pain and suffering to other human beings and other creatures. This situation opens up a new dimension of ethical relevance.

One of the main obstacles to deal with the moral sphere in general and with the problem of evil in particular is the "two cultures" perspective of our modern world-view. This perspective posits a distinction between western and eastern thought and between the arts or humanities on the one hand, and the sciences on the other.

For Serres, all these distinctions are erroneous and dangerous. They leave us with no appropriate tools to deal with current moral issues. Consequently, he calls for a "third" organization of our human knowledge. This means that we put side-by-side all the sources of knowledge, and try to find connections among them. Like Hermes, the Greek god we have to look at our world anew. This will enable us to see the relevance of different types of knowledge to form an inspiring new worldview.


New paradigms: non-western approaches to creating gender equitable societies
Dr. Meg Rincker
Purdue University Calumet
United States of America

Policymakers and politicians in many countries around the world state that they want to increase the democratic participation of women in societies around the world. We can see this trend of women's empowerment in places like the United Nations Millennium Development Goal #3 “Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women” and the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) treaty ratified by 188 countries around the world. Another such avenue for increasing women's political participation is through decentralization. Decentralization refers to policies to disperse state authority to design public policy, deliver public services, or collect taxes to sub-national officials. However, some research shows that its opposite, a centralized commitment to gender equality, best facilitates engendering of politics. Hinojosa shows that political parties with centralized rule making and candidate selection processes encourage more women in office because centralization overcomes problems of women's hesitancy to self-nominate, and centralization bypasses traditional male elite selectorates. My research shows that a decentralization trifecta (meaning gender quotas, women's policy machinery and gender responsive budgeting on the sub-national level), is necessary to bring about women's participation in decentralized systems. This means that at some level, centralized commitment to gender quotas, equality bureaucracies and budgetary processes is needed for decentralization to work for women as well for men. However, detractors argue that these centralized quota rules compromise democratic principles of free competition and non-discrimination. This paper examines how centralization and decentralization, democratization and mandatory gender quotas can coexist in one paradigm, drawing on non-western traditions.

 

Mapping the Human Condition in the Neo-liberal Era
Dr. Siri Hettige
University of Colombo
Sri Lanka

The scale and intensity of social change that globalized capitalism has brought about across the world is such that it seems reasonable to assert that ‘modern’ sociological perspectives (both modernist and structuralist) are no longer adequate even to account for the realities of the western world , let alone the non-western societies whose realties had limited relevance for the development of classical and modern sociological theory. It has also become increasingly clear that the state, economy and social system equation that underpinned both modernist and structuralist perspectives is no longer tenable as societies do no longer display the same degree of confluence of economic, social and political organization that the above equation implied. For instance, social and economic forces can be hardly contained within the physical boundaries of the state. It is true that the economic crises in the recent past have brought the state back in to a considerable extent, but the regulatory and welfare state functions of the state are not restored due to the increasingly mobile nature of capital and labor and the consequent weakening of social citizenship. Yet, the state in general, with its vaguely nationalist undertones, remains a largely legitimate framework for collective action vis-a-vis other states and intra state forces, though social and economic relations often tend to transcend state boundaries.
It is against the above background that we are compelled to face up to the challenge of developing an alternative theoretical perspective that goes beyond methodological nationalism but at the same time accounts for the persisting and emerging patterns of collective social life of people, including social and political organization, both within and beyond states. There are several important issues here. Firstly, the emerging constraints for capital and labour mobility due to rising wage and resource pressures; how would this affect the present processes of global circulation of capital and labour? Secondly, ecological limits to economic growth are becoming more and more pronounced owing to almost insurmountable environmental challenges, perhaps leading to increased re- localization of production and consumption. Thirdly, in spite of the erosion of traditional forms of social, cultural and economic relations, there is also considerable continuity in the way human beings relate to each other at different levels. On the other hand, the state remains the key arena where people, in particular, hegemonic groups, continue to collectively articulate and give expression to their ideas and interests. Moreover, the increasing significance of the global inter-state system, no matter how complex and conflictual it has become in recent years, gives greater credence to the state, making it the main building block of the global political organization. So, it is argued in this paper that our understanding of the human social condition today should be based on an analysis of how people relate to the state and how their economic and social relations are shaped by the nature of the state and vice versa. While social relations can no longer be effectively contained or restrained by conventional social and territorial boundaries, human social aggregates of diverse kind are in a state of flux, both nationally and globally. Human populations largely contained within the state are increasingly segmented devoid of any overarching normative framework due to the erosion of dominant value systems and social institutions.

 

Unshackling the Postmodern
Dr. Umesh K. Singh
Vikramajit Singh Sanatan Dharm College
India

The privileged Western ideologies and intellectual paradigms having modern, postmodern and poststructuralist Western thought process as their central theoretical apparatus have failed in their attempt at producing a radical and alternative knowledge. Instead of studies with and from a subaltern perspective, they reproduced the epistemic schema of Area Studies about the subaltern where theory and the subjects to be studied are dislocated. Western thought process got predominant privilege; ethnic, racial perspectives got underestimated. A decolonial epistemic perspective requires a broader canvas of thought than simply the Western point of view. A truly universal decolonial perspective have to be the result of the critical dialogue between diverse critical epistemic/ethical/political projects towards a pluriversal as oppose to a universal world. Decolonization of knowledge requires to take seriously the epistemic perspective and insights of critical thinkers from the Global South thinking from and with subalternized racial/ethnic/sexual spaces and bodies. Postmodernism and post structuralism as epistemological projects are caught within the Western thought process reproducing within its domains of thought and practice a particular form of coloniality of power and knowledge. Moreover concepts like Globalization studies, political-economy paradigms and world-system analysis are in need of decolonization and this can only be achieved with a decolonial epistemology.


The Ideological Context of Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex the Dynamics of Postmodern Cultural Space
Dr. Rajbir Parashar
RKSD College, Kaithal, Haryana
India

Postmodernism, consumerism and Post-industrial society have a cultural continuum with prominence in cultural studies across the globe. With their mutually clubbed rise directly linked to the technological changes, the accumulated impact of these trends and ideas in cultural sphere is immense. Even the literary and journalistic productions are not spared from them. Amidst its wide processes is the question of gender, construction and manipulation of female body in the digital world. The popular culture in post-industrial society appears a liberated space, more so for women who dominate advertisements as well as the whole set of virtual reality available to us. The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir is a seminal text in understanding how a gendered reality along with its pre-modern cultural linkages has evolved through and made a huge formative influence on the behavioral aspect of mankind across national and cultural boundaries. But the problematic aspects are many, particularly with regard of the notions of subjectivity, identity and reality which have gained currency under its impact. It may, therefore, be appropriate to have a cursory look at the radical changes that these cultural changes have initiated and precipitated in the study of cultural studies with wide ramifications of feminist readings of popular culture. In these new contexts, there is a deep crisis of the reognizable ‘authentic self’ in discourse and outside in forms of praxis, the writings of Simone de Beuvoir pose a resistance to these potential dangers . This paper will cite specific examples from The Second Sex that foreground Simone’s views on interconnections of language, gender and power and how they illustrate her positioning of resistance from the inside of Western epistemology and further cultural discourse including feminist studies.

 

Emerging Challenges to Multiculturalism in 21st Century
Prof Pramod K Mishra
Chief Editor, Asian Studies, Delhi
India

Multiculturalism, a term coined by Will Kymlicka, is a body of thought in political philosophy about the proper way to respond to cultural and religious diversity. The term was coined by Will Kymlicka. While multiculturalism has been used as an umbrella term to characterize the moral and political claims of a wide range of disadvantaged groups, including African Americans, women, gays and lesbians, and the disabled, most theorists of multiculturalism tend to focus their arguments on immigrants who are ethnic and religious minorities.
Multiculturalism is closely associated with “identity politics,” “the politics of difference,” and “the politics of recognition,” all of which share a commitment to revaluing disrespected identities and changing dominant patterns of representation and communication that marginalize certain groups. Multicultural claims include a wide range of claims involving religion, language, ethnicity, nationality, and race.
The 21st century which has witnessed many shifting paradigms and concepts has clearly accepted multiculturalism for several multiracial countries like Canada, USA, Australia and India .But most of these societies are facing some major challenges in course of their nation-building. These challenges have emerged due to a number of factors like cosmopolitan view of culture, lack of toleration and accommodation, l Diversion from a “politics of redistribution”, Egalitarian consideration and existence of vulnerable “internal minorities. However, the greatest challenge to multiculturalism may not be philosophical but political. At the start of the twenty-first century, there is talk of a retreat from multiculturalism.

The proposed paper will try to address these emerging challenges to Multiculturalism in the present century.


Hindutva: An Alternate Paradigm of Post-Modernity
-Dr. Pawan Mishra

In the late 1950 Danial Bell and others who wrote the end of ideology had in mind a new era of democratic freedom. This approach was about human liberation from rigid and one sided definitions. Postmodernism is a mood, a disposition. The chief characteristic of the postmodernist disposition is that it is opposed to the Enlightenment and Industrial revolution’s impressions which is taken to be the core of modernism Jean Baudrillard believed that modernity ended in the late 20th century and thus has defined a period subsequent to modernity, namely post modernity He declared that the real world is no more real than Disneyland.
According to postmodern philosophy, society is in a state of constant change. There is no absolute version of reality, no absolute truths. Postmodern religion strengthens the perspective of the individual and weakens the strength of institutions and religions that deal with objective realities.
On the above interpretation Hindutva can be the alternate approach of post modernity. It does not claim any one Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic concept, it does not follow any one act of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not satisfy the traditional features of a religion or creed. It is a way of life and nothing more. Despite the differences, there is a sense of unity. Hinduism uses its eclectic mantra - "Truth is one, the wise call it by different names". Hindutva has space for ‘individual truth’ not a framed truth. In another way as postmodern approach gives importance of individual meaning over institutional thought, Hindutva has been implementing this since the dawn of civilization.


Swami Vivekananda and the Challenges of Post Modernity
Dr. Alka Srivastava
RSGD College, Lucknow
India

The paper emphasized on Asian Alternates to make an effort for tackling the challenges of post modernity. Today it is the necessity for the intellectuals to reemerge the classical philosophies by their main humane thoughts, by which we get a way to sort out the problems and the challenges of the whole world. It seems the urgent need of today’s world to enquire the challenges thrown up by the post modernity.
The paper represents in this context the views of Swami Vivekananda .Vivekananda took upon himself to preach to the Indian people and to the people of the west. His message was both national and international significance. He gave out the Vedanta message of hope through social security and welfare leading to a purer form of renunciation and spirituality . He desired India to strive for the evolution of a Vedantic civilization where science and politics would be utilized to lead man higher and higher levels of self expression ; not merely desired it, but He also demonstrated that India ,among all the nations had the requisite historically acquired capacity to make that contribution to world civilization . Thus by giving a practical shape to the Vedanta He gave us a way to enquire the challenges thrown up by the post modernity. In this way early philosophy can be useful in interpreting the present day world.

 

How to Combat the Rise of Religious Violence in Post-Modern Societies
Dr. Sudhir Chander Hindwan
Panjab University, Chandigarh
India

The recent attack in Nigeria by religious terrorist outfit Boko Haram that killed 43 school children is a disturbing reminder of an array of issues which the world is yet to come to grips with. This is the second incident of terrorist violence against school students. Hardy a few months ago the same organization killed
40 innocent school students and left over 18 wounded. Religious violence is on the rise .A few days ago Somali terrorist left 67 people killed in a Kenyan shopping mall. Al Qaeda affiliated religious terror outfit Al-Shabaab was involved in this act. It is possible to frame a strategy about terrorist attack but there is still confusion over whether such a mechanism is successful in dealing with terrorists driven by fundamentalism. Gradually, religion is becoming the main motivating force for terrorism across the globe. The series of violent activities by the religious terrorist outfits suggest that terrorism has entered a new phase and security agencies are in a state of shock. Attacks on school buses, public toilets, important government buildings, telephone exchange, railway stations, countryside areas and police pickets have become quite common. In some areas where there was a lull for long , a recurrence of the reign of terror has disturbed the peaceful ambience. .The main purpose behind these activities is to induce fear in the minds of police and administration. The major question that arises is how to nip in the bud these evil genius who are taking the entire human civilization into the path of destruction .The research paper is an attempt to analyse return of religious violence as main destructive force across the globe and seek certain measures for controlling the same.


Scientism and Post-Modern Discourse
Dr. Kiran Mishra
India

All kinds of discourse from early times till now can be seen in terms of “how something happened”. After the Industrial Revolution, methodology was developed broadly along the lines of cause-and-effect. Science was linked with methodology. In this, wisdom was discouraged and civilisation and development were defined in terms of certain universal principles. Mechanical reasoning was privileged over understanding and insight. There was no scope for human emotion in this, due to which the world had to witness two World Wars. America, widely seen as a model for development, produced enough weapons of destruction to destroy the world twenty-three times over. A culture has come about where thinking in a non-scientific paradigm is seen as a serious problem. Controlling knowledge through fear has had devastating results, exemplified by terrorism and clash of civilisations. The logic of globalisation was used to trample upon local cultures. Extreme scientism has brought the very existence of humanity under doubt. In such a situation, the postmodern approach can serve as a chance to look for some alternative basis of discourse.

 

Changing concepts of international borders in post modern world
(with special reference to Indo-Bangladesh Coordinated Border Management)
-Dr. Sujit Datta
University of Chittagong
Bangladesh

The partition of British India in 1947 was done neither on linguistic-cultural nor on historical basis but on the basis of religion, which set the scene for the demarcation of the Bangladesh border. The partition created the two nation-states of India and Pakistan. In a short-lived war of independence, East Pakistan gave way to the independent nation-state of Bangladesh in 1971, with the same borders as originally established in the 1947 partition. Bangladesh is an India-locked country, Bangladesh shares 4427 kilometers of long border on three sides with India and the fourth side is opening to the Bay of Bengal. On the other hand India shares a long border on seven sister’s area with China. Maintaining such long extended border relation often tensed to decline, which is not exception in case of these neighboring countries. This study would provide us precious information about the factors of border problems or erotic border issues in Bangladesh, India and China. This study also looks at different dimensions of Bangladesh-India-border management practices as well as the challenges to this process. Indo-Bangla border is not a strictly sealed border of two different countries. Various cultural, historical and economic factors make people to have relations across borders. On the other hand Due to non-settlement of this issue, frequent firing and kidnapping incidents are taking place along the common border of the three countries. The policy implications of the study findings will be of particular interest to government decision-makers and practitioners to focus on enhancing effective and cooperative relationship with our neighbor to address border concerns.

 

Deconstructing the Modern Idea of Beauty
Isha Tripathi
Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi,
Delhi,
India

The Oxford dictionary defines the term beauty as a combination of qualities such as shape, color or form that pleases the aesthetic sense, especially the sight. Over the past decade, a specific idea as to who is to be considered beautiful has been established globally. Two problems ensue- one, by way of language, binary opposites are created so that those who confirm to the standard are to be considered beautiful and those who deviate are to be considered ugly. There is only one way of being ‘beautiful’ and those who are not beautiful are convinced by constant perpetuation of images to strive for that standard. Consequently, bodies are treated as objects that need to be made to look a certain way in order to be socially acceptable. This leads to the second problem: unprecedented discipline is directed against the body and the self is constantly monitored so that the individual is trapped in his/her bodily appearance, inflicting physical, mental and emotional violence on oneself.

The problem is not restricted to any one gender, or any specific age group. There is an urgent need to address the problem and deconstruct the habitual methods of analyzing beauty. The paper does not propose another overarching standard, but stresses upon the futility of having a single, ‘the’ standard and proposes that multiple ideas as to who or what is beautiful be accepted widely, by using language to change the dominant discourse.

The paper also touches upon the very idea of physical appearance increasingly becoming of paramount importance for an individual to substantiate his/her presence and for attaining social acceptability being problematic.


Women and property in context of Post-modernism
Dr. Babita Katiyar
Research Scholar for PhD
India

It is impossible to properly analyze and evaluate the changing order of human development from primitive age to modernity and from modernity to post-modernity without evaluating, with the whole, the specific situation of women in reality. The tendency to shift from modernity to post-modernity is the beginning of a journey from classification to entirety must be visible from philosophy to socio-political and economic systems. Naturally, it is impossible to measure and evaluate this move from classification-stratification to entirety-similarity without considering the most ancient basis of classification i.e. gender based differentiation. In this context, the paper presents the situation of women in the power hierarchy of family with special reference to their participation in property related decisions.

The paper is based on a study of 100 highly educated married young women.

Upon investigating the participation of women in matters related to property, we found that the participation of working women is 80% and that of housewives is 20%, showing that the participation of working women is higher than that of housewives. On the basis of religion, the participation of Hindu women is 25%, of Muslim women is 20%, and that of other religions is 20%. Thus, it is clear that the participation of Hindu women is the highest. On the basis of form of family, the participation of women from nuclear families is the most. On investigating the participation of women on the basis of different castes, we found that the participation of women from higher caste is 25%, from backward castes is 30.56, and that of the schedules castes is 15%. Therefore, the participation of women from backward castes is the highest. The participation of women earning less than their husbands is 25.92% and of those earning more than their husbands is 38.46%. Therefore, the participation of working women is more than that of women who are not employed, but this participation is not satisfactory. The participation of women in such important decisions is negligent.

Gender, Status and Power in Discourse Behaviour of Men and Women
Dr. Anju Shukla
Associate Professor & Head Deptt. Of Sociology
Akbarpur P.G. College
Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat

The paper addresses the question of the play of gender equations and power relations in the field of male-female speech. For our purpose we have used the study of some linguistic variables in relevant literature and have made an attempt to explain the differential use of language by way of two hypotheses that are the dominance and the difference approaches.

Two developments happened simultaneously in the 1960s and 1970s in the United States: first, the feminist movement gained momentum and second, mechanisms were provided by sociolinguistics for the scientific investigation of language variation on the basis of both socio-economic and gender factors. In the context of gender as a factor, these studies investigated linguistic features such as phonological variability of male and female differences. It was interpreted through these studies that the differential use of these variables constituted a gender pattern.

But such quantitative studies have faced major criticism for its methodological considerations, particularly, Labov and Trudgill, who assign socio-economic status to women on the basis of masculine norms which causes the data to tilt in the direction of male variable. On the other hand, qualitative studies involve the linguistic and social contexts of speech, and in addition to that, they also include cultural and psychological ones. Interactional patterns in same-sex and cross-sex studies provide evidence for the fundamental difference between men’s and women’s linguistic behaviour. Other studies on language use in communication with respect to amount of speech and control of topic show similar patterns for the distribution of variation between men and women.

This difference manifests itself, for instance, in linguistic behaviour by the differential use of question tags, and in communicative behaviour by the use of interruptions. Two major hypotheses are offered while explaining this variability: the dominance and the difference approach. The participants in a conversation use a number of strategies to achieve their conversational goals. One of these goals may be to dominate other participants of the speech situation. Most studies find that in mixed talks men tend to be more dominating than women.
The use of interruptions is one of the obvious strategies for achieving this goal, often explained by the power derived from the relative social status of the participant. A higher incidence of interruptions has been seen in men from relatively high social and economic status. However, women are powerless regarding their social position, reflected in fewer interruptions in cross-sex conversations. This in turn results in the wish to be accepted by the dominant group. The verbal expressions of this accommodating behaviour are, among other, tag-questions.

Personality differences will have to be considered as well. Individual subjects react differently in different situations, and it must be constantly remembered that ‘maleness’ and ‘femaleness’ are very blurred categories. While it is true that statistical means show specific features for men and women standards, deviations can be fairly large, resulting in overlap.


Theory – Global Perspective and Alternate
Dr. Rashmi Pandey Asstt. Professor
Deptt. of Sociology
Akbarpur P.G. College
Akbarpur.

Today we are living in a world that is moving and changing rapidly. Undoubtedly, our present global scenario is subject to constant change and is therefore full of dynamism. It is multifaceted, multidirectional, multifarious and multidimensional due to its rapid movements and motions. When we use refer to the phenomenon of globalization and the global perspective, we mean taking the whole world, the whole cosmos, the whole universe together as a unit. As a unit, globalization, proceeding towards a very unique outcome, presents us with various unique platforms. We must note now that our globalization in various aspects is due to our cross communication and cross cauterization.

If western ideology and cultural set up taken together as matter of facts, no doubt these things affected our habit patterns so much that we express the hybrid mixture of western and eastern outlooks together as a unit. Post modernity helps in exploring of alternate paradigms by providing a momentum and dynamic energy to renovate and recreate new types of paradigms. Post-modernity deals critically with the prevalent western ideologues and addresses the need to change them. In the present times, our language, in fact, our very culture and social pattern is an outcome of post-modernism’s great momentum and dynamic change. Post modernity presents a unique system and pattern of complicated web of cross mixture and amalgamation of cultures. Post modernity affects all things related and attached to our way of life, even our thinking concerning post modernity.